Two good references for Food & Cooking Measurements:

- AMERICAN, CANADIAN, AUSTRALIAN
MEASUREMENTS

- The Accidental Scientist


COOKING TIPS YOU CAN DAZZLE YOUR FRIENDS WITH

SECRETS FROM THE GUTSY GOURMET!


EDIBLE FLOWERS FOR YOUR SALADS OR GARNISHES

| Peach blossoms | apple blossoms | artichoke blossoms | bachelor buttons |

| basil (cinnamon, lemon, anise, sweet, mommouth, picolo, Greek) | begonias |

|bee balm | calendulas | cilantro blossoms | chrysanthemums | dandelions |

| day lillies | dianthus | elderberries | garlic chives | garlic (society) |

| geraniums "scented" variety | hollyhocks | hyssop anise | jasmine |

| lavender (lady, blue, purple) | marigolds | mint blossoms | mustard | nasturtiums |

| nodding wild onion | pansies | parsley | pumpkin blossoms | purple sage |

| rose shrub | radishes | sage | salvia (Victoria blue) | snapdragon | squash blossoms |

| summer savory | stocks | winter savory | yucca | zinnias | zucchini blossoms |


WHAT DO THEY MEAN WHEN THEY SAY:?

BAKING: cooking in an oven, heated to the desired temperature.
When applied to meat it is called roasting. (A thermometer on the outside of an oven,
set to the desired temperature, helps to insure more perfect results.
If there is no thermometer on the oven, one can be purchased to place
inside the oven to regulate the heat.)

BASTING: pouring small quantities of fat or other liquid over food to prevent burning and to increase flavor.

BOILING: cooking in boiling water (212°F). Boiling need not be rapid;
slow boiling is just as effective.

BRAISING: cooking meat or vegetables on all sides in a small amount of hot fat.
A small amount of liquid is added, the pan covered, and the food
cooked over low heat, either in oven or on top of stove.

BROILING: cooking by exposing good directly to the heat.

PAN-BROILING: cooking in a pan on top of the stove by dry heat, with just enough heat to keep food from sticking to pan.

FRYING: cooking in fat, enough to cover bottom of pan.

FRENCH FRYING OR DEEP-FAT FRYING: cooking in deep fry kettle in enough hot fat or salad oil to
float food. A temperature of 390°F. for cooked mixtures such as croquettes,
370°F. for uncooked mixtures such as fritters and doughnuts.

POACHING: cooking below the boiling point in enough hot liquid to cover food.

PARBOILING: cooking food partially but not entirely in liquid.

PREHEATING: turning on heat in oven and heating to the desired temperature
before putting in food to bake or roast.

ROASTING: cooking by dry heat, usually in oven.

SAUTE'ING: cooking in a small amount of fat in a pan over direct heat.
Literally, saute' means to bounce up and down, as a chef would do with a skillet with food as he mixes it.

SCALDING: heating to just below the boiling point.

SCALLOPING: baking food with sauce and crumbs.

SEARING: subjecting raw meat to intense heat, browning the surface
(usually in hot pan or hot oven).

SIMMERING: cooking in liquid just below the boiling point.

STEAMING: cooking in steam or over boiling water. A double boiler or steamer is usually used.

STEEPING: letting stand in hot liquid, as is done with tea leaves.

STERILIZING: killing bacteria by intense heat.

STEWING: cooking gently in liquid.

TOASTING: browning in an oven or by direct heat.

FOR MORE TIPS AND DEFINITIONS - GO HERE!

FOR MORE WEIGHTS AND MEASURES - GO HERE!

DIRECTIONS FOR MEASURING DRY INGREDIENTS

FLOUR: Sift before measuring. Pile the sifted flour into the measuring cup and
level off with a knife. Do not pack down.

WHITE SUGAR: Fill cup and level off with knife.

BROWN SUGAR: Pack into cup and level off with knife.

CONFECTIONER'S SUGAR: Sift and pile lightly into cup and level off
with knife or spatula.


DIRECTIONS FOR MEASURING LIQUIDS

•Glass measuring cups marked off in quarters and thirds are most useful for
measuring liquids. Hold the cup on a level with eyes.


DIRECTIONS FOR MEASURING SHORTENINGS (butter, margarine, cooking fats)


•Hard shortening may be measured by the water displacement method.
For example, if the measurement needed is 1/2 cup shortening,
fill the cup 1/2 full of cold water and add shortening.
When the water reaches the one cup mark, pour off water and 1/2 cup shortening remains.
Or, shortening may be placed on kitchen table until it softens and measured
by packing into tablespoon or cup, then leveling off with knife.

•2 cups fat or shortening = 1 lb

•1 cup fat or shortening = 1/2 lb

•1/2 cup fat or shortening = 1/4 lb

•8 Tbsp fat or shortening = 1/4 lb


•The most accurate method of roasting meat is to use a meat thermometer. Insert thermometer
through fat side of meat before it is put in oven, using a skewer to make a
space first. Let pointed end reach center of roast. Do not let it touch bone.
The following temperatures are indicated on the meat thermometer:

RIBS.......................Rare—140°F; Medium—160°F; Well done—170°F

SIRLOIN.................Medium—160°F; Well done—170°F

TENDERLOIN...........160°-170°F

RUMP......................170°F

PORK.......................Fresh—138°F; Cured—138°F

LAMB......................Medium—175°F; Well done—182°F

VEAL......................170°F


OVEN TEMPERATURE CHART

•Slow..................250° to 325°F

•Moderate............350° to 375°F

•Hot...................400° to 450°F

•Very Hot............475° to 500°F and above


WHEN YOU NEED TO SUBSTITUTE INGREDIENTS

•MILK: 1 cup fluid fresh milk may be replaced by any one of the following
mixtures: Evaporated milk—1/2 cup plus 1/2 cup water; sour milk
or buttermilk—1 cup plus 1/2 tsp baking soda.

•CHOCOLATE: 1 sq chocolate (1 oz) may be replaced during baking with
1/4 cup (4 Tbsp) cocoa. Increase shortening by 1-1/2 tsp.
For hot chocolate use 2 to 3 Tbsp of cocoa, which equals 1 sq chocolate.

•SUGAR: 1 cup granulated sugar may be replaced by any one of the
following ingredients: 1 cup brown sugar; 3/4 cup honey,
reduce other liquid in recipe; 1 cup molasses, reduce other liquid in recipe. It is best, wherever possible,
to use syrups in recipes especially developed for them.

•SHORTENING: 1 cup butter may be replaced by any one of the following
ingredients: 1 cup hydrogenated fats; 1 cup lard; 1 cup margarine.


Scoville Chart




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